China's rapid modernization since introducing economic reforms in 1978 has prompted the suburbanization of Chinese cities, many of which are mimicking the automobile-centric patterns of post-World War II United States. Robert Cervero and Jennifer Day studied Shanghai's experience and make the case that transit-oriented development can help stem the centrifugal movement of people and jobs out of central cities.
[This is the first in what we hope is a large series of expert blogs on TOD highlighting work and research that experts are doing in the field. Today's post is by Dr. Ming Zhang who is an Associate Professor in the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Zhang specializes in urban transportation planning, transportation impacts on land use, urban form and travel behavior, GIS applications in urban and transportation planning, and land use/transportation issues in developing countries.]
Beijing's transit development is at a crossroads. The capital of the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases is in danger of locking itself into a pattern of Los Angeles-type sprawl with ever-rising CO2 emissions, a new World Bank study finds...... Read On
Yesterday I found myself reading with interests about the Chinese government's plans for expansion of the Shanghai Metro. Very sensibly, there's not only an ongoing expansion plan designed to last through 2020, but there's also an even longer-range plan looking forward to 2050...... Read On
Beijing will transform into a "public
transport city" by 2015. In peak hours, the minimum departure interval
for subway trains will be shortened to 2 minutes; the waiting time at
bus stops will be reduced to 3 to 5 minutes; public transport will
account for 45 percent of the journeys in downtown areas. "Beijing's
implementation plan on humanistic, technological and green transport"
(from 2009 to 2015) was recently reviewed and approved by the Standing
Committee of CPC Beijing Municipal Committee, unveiling the "public
Hong Kong’s principal rail operator, the MTR Corporation (MTRC), has advanced the practice of transit value capture more than any public-transport organization worldwide. It has done so through its “Rail + Property” development approach, or R+P. Chapter One examines the evolution and implementation of R+P since its inception in the mid-1980s. The role of MTRC as master planner of station-area development and the process introduced to share risks and rewards among public and private stakeholders are discussed. Chapter Two discussed R+P as a form of transit-oriented development (TOD). Through good quality urban design and attention to the needs of pedestrians, concentrating growth around stations can not only help finance capital infrastructure but can also contribute to place-making and community enhancement.
Over the past decade, mainland Chinese cities have rapidly suburbanized. Fueling the centrifugal movement of people and jobs out of central cities has been rising disposable incomes which allow more housing consumption and not unrelated, private automobile ownership (Ingram, 1998). More and more, Chinese cities are mimicking the suburbanization trends and patterns of the post-World War II United States, the world’s most car-dependent nation.
The sustainability implications of car-oriented suburbanization are cause for concern. Since 1978 when China’s central government introduced its open-door policy of economic form, urban population has grown from 80 million to more than 560 million, an annual growth rate of 7.5% (Lin, 2002; Zhang, 2007). Vehicle ownership has increased at more than twice this rate. In Shanghai, the number of registered private automobiles jumped from 200,000 in 1991 to 1.4 million in 2002 (Zhang, 2007).
Urban China’s swift pace of peripheral…
In September 2003, the MTR Corporation (MTRC) approached the Research Centre for Construction & Real Estate Economics of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University with a request to undertake a study of an essential element of its business operations known as the ‘integrated rail-property development model’. The MTRC wants the study to ascertain, from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, the impacts and benefits generated by this development model.