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Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence

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An article exploring how urban design can reduce automobile dependance has been added to the Best Practices.

A major goal of urban design, especially in centers, is to reduce automobile dependence in order to address issues of viability and sustainability. But what is the threshold of urban intensity (residents and jobs) required before  automobile dependence is significantly reduced? This 2006 article by Peter Newman and Jeffrey Kenworthy from "Opolis: An International Journal of Suburban and Metropolitan Studies" seeks to determine a theoretical base for what the data show.

That article suggests that below the threshold intensity of urban activity, the physical constraints of distance and time enforce car use as the norm. The basis of these physical constraints is outlined and the link between density and access to services that provide amenity is established, including the service levels of public transport. A design technique for viability of centers is suggested as well as how a city can restructure itself to overcome automobile dependence.