The Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Guides provide a comprehensive, straightforward overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategies that local governments can employ. Topics include energy efficiency, transportation, community planning and design, solid waste and materials management, and renewable energy. City, county, territorial, tribal, and regional government staff and elected officials can use these guides to plan, implement, and evaluate climate and energy projects.
This Recommended Practice describes the spatial areas in which transit stops and stations typically have the greatest impact on land use and development and from which there is high potential to generate transit ridership. It provides guidance on delineating these areas for the purposes of influencing decisions about private and public investments and services.
Recent consumer surveys and demographic analyses have indicated a growing market for pedestrian- and transit-designed development. Theoretically, this market shift should be reflected in the price people are willing to pay for that style of development. This article traces the literature that uses hedonic price methods for testing this hypothesis, either by assessing pedestrian/transit-design development holistically or by evaluating its component parts. The literature confirms that the market shift is, indeed, being capitalized into real estate prices and demonstrates that the amenity-based elements of transit-designed development play an important positive role in urban land markets, independent of the accessibility benefits provided by transit.
More than just a pleasant amenity, the walkability of cities translates directly into increases in home values. Homes located in more walkable neighborhoods—those with a mix of common daily shopping and social destinations within a short distance—command a price premium over otherwise similar homes in less walkable areas. Houses with the above-average levels of walkability command a premium of about $4,000 to $34,000 over houses with just average levels of walkability in the typical metropolitan areas studied.
This paper explores the connection between home values and walkability, as measured by the Walk Score algorithm. Walk Score measures the number of typical consumer destinations within walking distance of a house, with scores ranging from 0 (car dependent) to 100 (most walkable). By the Walk Score measure, walkability is a direct function of how many destinations are located within a short distance (generally between one-quarter mile and one mile of a home). Our…
The California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) commits California to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The transportation sector is the top GHG emitter in California, contributing roughly 40 percent of all California emissions. Poor fuel efficiency and high vehicle miles traveled (VMT) are primary contributors to transportation sector GHG emissions. Meeting California’s GHG emissions reduction goals requires reductions in both per-mile emissions and vehicle miles traveled. Fuel efficiency has been addressed historically by federal Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and California has passed its own legislation regulating GHG emissions from vehicles.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of walkability on property values and investment returns. Walkability is the degree to which an area within walking distance of a property encourages walking for recreational or functional purposes. It is of particular concern to developers, investors and others interested in sustainable and responsible property investing because of its potential social and environmental benefits. We used data from the National Council of Real Estate Investment Fiduciaries (NCREIF) and Walk Score to examine the effects of walkability on the market value and annual investment returns of nearly 11,000 office, apartment, retail and industrial properties over the past decade in the USA. We find that, all else being equal, the benefits of walkability are capitalized into office, retail, apartment and industrial property values with more walkable sites commanding higher property values. On a 100 point scale, a 10 point increase in walkability…
Re-imagining a More Sustainable Cleveland starts from the premise that the loss of population over the last 60 years is not likely to be reversed in the near term and that Cleveland’s future ability to attract and retain residents depends in large part on how the city adapts to population decline and changing land use patterns. The reuse of vacant land is crucial to Cleveland’s potential to be a “green city on a blue lake.”
There are approximately 3,300 acres of vacant land within city limits, and an estimated 15,000 vacant buildings. Many of these vacant properties are poorly maintained and they diminish the value of the remaining, more viable buildings and neighborhoods in the city.The city demolishes about 1,000 vacant houses per year; private demolitions and fires are also reducing the number of derelict structures in the city. After demolition, surplus land becomes a raw asset for the city–a resource for future development as the city’s population…
This article concerns the role of children in our communities. A review of research shows that children play a limited role in the decision making processes that shapes their environment. What is more, as they have become increasingly dependent on parental cars for activities and travel, children are loosing touch with their immediate neighbourhoods, a trend reflected in the declining number of children who walk or bike to school. However, Canada adheres to several international commitments enshrining the obligation to take the needs and perspectives of children into account in urban planning. The article draws on a number of research studies, including participatory projects and studies of children’s mobility, to highlight the importance of neighbourhood schools in terms of community life, child development and family well-being.
Investors are increasingly interested in corporate social responsibility and socially responsible investing (Hill et al. 2007, Schueth 2003). Since the 1970s, socially responsible investing, or efforts to maximize both financial return and social good, has grown into a global movement (Louche and Lydenberg 2006). Over 360 asset owners, investment managers and financial service providers, representing over $15 trillion in assets under management, have signed the UN Principles for Responsible Investment which “help investors integrate consideration of environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues into investment decision-making and ownership practices” (Principles for Responsible Investment 2008).
The application of responsible investing and corporate social responsibility to the property sector has come to be called Responsible Property Investing (Mansley 2000, McNamara 2000, Newell and Acheampong 2002, Boyd 2005, Lutzkendorf and Lorenz 2005, Newell 2008, Pivo…