There is a growing body of evidence, including earlier Mineta Transportation Institute-sponsored research, showing that multi-destination transit systems are far more effective in attracting passengers and more efficient in use of resources to carry each passenger than central business district (CBD)-focused systems. At the same time, however, evidence is beginning to show that multi-destination transit systems appeal largely to transit-dependent riders (also called captive riders), whose demand for transit service appears to be highly elastic with respect to the shortening of transit travel time between origin and destination. Given the interest in using transit investments to lure people from their automobiles in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce congestion, it is imperative that the appeal of such systems to choice riders (also called discretionary riders) also be understood. However, this issue remains as yet relatively unexplored.
Introduction to TOD Handbook
The City of Winnipeg’s new planning framework – anchored by OurWinnipeg and the Complete Communities Direction Strategy – is founded on environmental, social and economical solutions. This framework will prioritize building complete communities and accommodating growth and change in a sustainable way. This will be done by balancing growth in new and existing communities with intensification in certain areas of the city – namely, centres and corridors, major redevelopment sites, and downtown.
Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a key component of this balanced approach. By enabling density, mixed use, accessible urban design and sustainable transportation options, it:
contributes to the overall sustainability of the city,
provides a valued complement to existing land use patterns, and
offers a lifestyle option that appeals to many people.
A variety of sites can accommodate TOD, including, but not limited to, former industrial sites…
Over the next 25 years, the San Francisco Bay Area is projected to grow by an estimated 22 percent—adding around 1.6 million new residents. Land use and development professionals are engaged in a dialogue around how the region can accommodate this growth in a way that maintains the extraordinary quality-of-life that attracts people to live and work in the region. With an eye toward demographic shifts like an aging population and an increasing number of smaller and non-family households, planners and developers recognize the growing demand for homes and jobs in walkable, urban environments.
High land and housing costs in the core areas of the region, however, create continued development pressure in the outskirts of the region, leading to commute-times and household transportation costs that are among the highest in the nation. The high cost of housing and transportation is particularly felt by the region’s moderate- and lower-income families, who in some cities spend as…
Local and state governments use various tools to encourage development in economically challenged areas. Tax-increment financing (TIF) has been a leading tool used for this purpose. TIF allows cities and towns to borrow against an area’s future tax revenues in order to invest in immediate projects or encourage present development. When used properly and sparingly, TIF can promote enduring growth and stronger communities. When used improperly, however, TIF can waste taxpayer resources or channel money to politically favored special interests.
To protect the public interst, governments should impose strong safeguards that ensure that TIF projectsare implemented through a transparent, accountable process with clear and compelling goals.
Governments must use care in choosing when to use tax-increment financing. The public can benefit from subsidies that bring lasting economic development to declining or stagnant areas. However, tax-increment financing can be wasted on…
Strategic Plan Overview & Purpose
This plan describes Sound Transit’s vision, goals and strategy for creating transit-oriented development (TOD) on and around its stations, transit centers and park-andride lots. TOD is compact public and private development that supports transit use by emphasizing pedestrian and transit access, such as the clustering of development and mixing land uses and activities at and around transit facilities.
Sound Transit, as a regional transit provider, builds and operates high capacity transit (HCT), as distinguished from local transit services. Sound Transit provides regional transit services that connect urban centers: commuter rail, light rail and express bus. Implementation of the Strategic Plan occurs in the context of Sound Move projects completed and under design and construction, and ST2 projects being planned. Sound Transit will implement TOD on its own properties, including forming development partnerships that increase…
Two goals in Translink’s Transport 2040 strategy are to have most trips in the region occur by walking, cycling and transit and to have the majority of jobs and housing in the region located along the Frequent Transit Network . Since the built environment is a major determinant of travel demand and mode choice, achieving these goals will require the creation of more transit-oriented communities – places that, by their very design, invite people to drive their cars less and walk, cycle and take transit more as no single agency or organization in the Metro Vancouver region has the mandate or capacity to address all of the various inter-dependent components needed to create transit-oriented communities, this effort will necessarily be a collaborative one between Translink, Metro Vancouver, local municipalities, and the private sector, as well as the wider public . This literature review provides a research foundation from which to facilitate this important regional…
The key is in not spending time, but in investing it. Stephen R. Covey
As you turn the first page of this book, you ask yourself, “What’s in it for me? Am I spending my time or investing my time?”
We live in an exciting time of great innovation and rapidly changing thinking about how to solve transportation problems. Since the early 1990s, hundreds of new organizations have formed to advocate for cyclists and pedestrians; curb sprawl and promote smarter solutions to growth; save scenic roads and promote heritage tourism; support local sustainable agriculture; bring back freight rail and promote light rail; and protect the environment by adopting new energy technologies and constructing resource efficient buildings. Curious people can tap into the web to access a vast universe of transportation information and case studies, and quickly communicate with friends and neighbors through social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Linked-In and many other sites and…
The purpose of this digest is provide an update to The Zoning and Real Estate Implications of Transit-Oriented Development (TCRP LRD 12). When TCRP LRD 12 was published in early 1999, only a handful of transit-oriented development (TOD) and transit-based joint development statutory and regulatory programs existed in the United States; those that did exist were, at that juncture, new and relatively untested. Since then, the field has filled with a number of new TOD and joint development programs, policies, and built projects, along with a robust academic and professional literature. Cumulatively, these sources demonstrate a wide range of legal devices geared, directly and indirectly, toward promoting and building TOD and joint development projects.
This digest attempts to trace these developments, beginning with an overview of the significant literature since the late 1990s. The literature summary is followed by a comprehensive…
Why This Book?
The importance of Planning for TOD at the regional Scale
Transit-Oriented Development, or TOD, is typically understood to be a mix of housing, retail and/or commercial development and amenities — referred to as “mixed-use development” — in a walkable neighborhood with high-quality public transportation. To learn the basics of TOD, see the first book in this series, TOD 101: Why TOD and Why Now?
Building successful TOD requires thinking beyond the individual station and understanding the role each neighborhood and station area plays in the regional network of transit-oriented places. It also requires an understanding of the real estate market, major employment centers, and travel patterns in the region. Regional planning for successful TOD projects is really about the coordination of existing plans for growth, transit, housing and jobs, as well as programs and policies at all levels of government.
Coordinating all these TOD…
Light rail in the West Corridor presents an incredible opportunity for transit-oriented development to leverage market momentum for new investment and community building. A focus on TOD will support growth near new transit stations, enhance access to opportunity, preserve and enhance the supply of a range of housing choices, reduce the combined costs of housing and transportation, and support walking and biking to stations. However, implementing TOD along the West Corridor will not be a quick or simple process. The overall economic conditions in the country are vastly impacting the pace and magnitude of private sector development activity everywhere. This macro-level challenge, combined with some micro-market conditions along the West Corridor, where residential home values are relatively low and the potential value increases related to transit have not yet been realized, indicates that in the near term, most implementation activity in the West Corridor will fall…