This report presents estimates of the metro area impacts of new units built using the housing tax credit during the six-year period starting in 2004 and running through 2009, in the five- county area (Adams, Arapahoe, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson) in the Denver metropolitan area. The comprehensive nature of the NAHB model requires that the local area over which the benefits are spread be large enough to include the places where construction workers live and spend their money, as well as the places where the new home occupants are likely to work, shop, and go for recreation. In practice, this usually means a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Based on local commuting patterns, OMB has identified the Denver MSA as a metro area consisting of the five counties mentioned above, plus five others (Broomfield, Clear Creek, Elbert, Gilpin, and Park) in Colorado (see map on the following page).
FRESC: Good Jobs, Strong Communities and Enterprise researched transit agency approaches to affordability in joint development in 24 cities in the U.S., and this report summarizes the best practices and outcomes among these agencies.
Transit agencies’ primary mission is to provide transit service; however, most recognize that affordable housing can play a key role in supporting their mission. Many agencies have written policies or plans on affordability that guide their joint development activity while others do not have written policies but achieve joint development with affordable housing in practice based on strong agency and community expectations. Successful transit agencies do not substitute for the role of the local government in creating affordable housing but can play a critical complementary role, often initiating projects that include affordable housing that would not have otherwise been possible.
At least nine transit agencies have joint development…
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has decided to include two key goals in all of its programs: encouraging sustainable communities and enhancing access to opportunity for lower-income people and people of color. This paper examines the relationship between these two goals through a literature review and an original empirical analysis of how these goals interact at the neighborhood and metropolitan area levels. We also offer policy recommendations for HUD.
Transit-oriented housing developments are compact, mixed-use, pedestrian-friendly developments within walking distance of transit stations, typically defined as a half mile from a station. Advocates of transit-oriented development seek to direct population growth to locations where public transit and infrastructure already exist, with the expectation that the area’s residents, employees, and shoppers will increasingly walk or use transit rather than autos for many of their trips.
Our interviews with municipal officials and other knowledgeable individuals suggest that high-density housing development on infill and greenfield parcels near transit stations has been limited in the state of New Jersey for a number of reasons, including difficulty with land assembly, financial complexity, lack of developer knowledge, and public opposition. Current residents fear increased auto traffic, problems with parking, and an influx of number of school-age children straining public…
Why This Book?
The Importance of Locating Mixed-Income Housing Near Transit
There is a growing consensus that communities that provide housing for a mix of in-income housing – whether provided within a single project or a neighborhood – makes it possible for people of all incomes to live in safe neighborhoods near well-funded schools and good city services, with greater access to a wider variety of jobs and opportunities. Providing housing for a mix of incomes also allows families to continue living in the same community, even as children grow up and look for their own apartments or homes, and parents grow older and want to down-size their living arrangements.
The socio-economic diversity that mixed-income housing provides for also enhances community stability and sustainability, and ensures that low-income households are not isolated in concentrations of poverty. Just as important, we are beginning to understand that the mixing and mingling of people from diverse backgrounds and…
A livable community has affordable and appropriate housing, supportive features and services, and adequate mobility options for people, regardless of age or ability. As communities address the general shortage of affordable housing, preserving affordable housing in transit-oriented developments (TODs) is one of the challenges that communities can address to increase their livability.
TODs are compact, walkable, mixed-use communities that are developed around high-quality public transportation. Residents often prize these places for the advantages created by the proximity to transportation and other amenities. One consequence of this desirability is that it can increase land and property values, exacerbating housing affordability challenges.
As policymakers try to extend the benefits of TODs to affordable housing locations, they must ensure that those benefits are available to people of low and moderate incomes and to those with different mobility…
What GAO Found
Characteristics of transit-oriented developments can increase nearby land and housing values, however determining transit-oriented development’s effects on the availability of affordable housing in these developments are complicated by a lack of direct research and data. Specifically, the presence of transit stations, retail, and other desirable amenities such as schools and parks generally increases land and housing values nearby. However, the extent to which land and housing values increase—or in the rare case, decrease—near a transit station depends on a number of characteristics, some of which are commonly found in transit-oriented developments. According to transit and housing stakeholders GAO spoke with, higher land and housing values have the potential to limit the availability of affordable housing near transit, but other factors—such as transit routing decisions and local commitment to affordable housing—can also affect availability.
Few local, state,…
The Bay Area is one of the most expensive and challenging housing markets in the country.1 On average, local households spend 48% of their income on housing, compared to 29% for the country as a whole, and just 12% can afford the median priced home.2 A quarter of Bay Area renters meet HUD’s definition of severely housing burdened, dedicating more than 50 percent of their income to housing.3
Anticipated growth will place even more pressure on the region’s housing market. The Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) projects an additional 1.9 million people and 1.6 million jobs by 2035.4 Meanwhile, new funding for transit approved by Bay Area voters will add 100 new stations, many in already built-up areas, to the region’s existing 300 rapid transit stations and transit corridors.5
Although the planned new transit facilities will help to accommodate much of the population growth, they also present a challenge. Researchers generally agree that new transit investment will…
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) serves as a planning tool creating more livable, pedestrian-friendly communities, where people can reduce their use of single-occupancy vehicles by increasing the convenience of other mobile or non-motorized alternatives to include walking, bicycling, mass transit, vanpools and carpools. A central purpose of Transit Oriented Development is to reduce the use of single-occupancy vehicles by increasing the number of times people walk, bicycle, carpool, vanpool, or take a bus, street car or rail (TCRP, 2002).
Transit Oriented Development, if designed correctly, brings potential riders closer to transit facilities. This option of building closer as opposed to building further away from transit nodes brings the neighborhood together and facilitates its lesser dependence on roads and automobiles. If designed properly, TOD should not only help transit investments work more efficiently, but also reduce external trip making since residents…
Bay area Burden provides a comprehensive analysis of the “cost of place” in nine counties located throughout the San Francisco region by examining the costs and impacts of housing and transportation on Bay Area residents, their neighborhoods, and the environment.
The Impacts of High Housing and Transportation costs
Bay Area households spend an average of more than $28,000 annually on housing—about 39 percent of the area median income. In addition to the high cost of housing, Bay Area households spend nearly $13,400 annually on transportation. Combined, this cost burden of $41,420 per year represents 59 percent of the median household income in the Bay Area. The high combined costs of housing and transportation leave many Bay Area households with insufficient remaining income to comfortably meet their basic needs. This underscores the importance of broadening our understanding of housing affordability to consider the combined costs of housing and…