Over the past several years, the private vehicle has become the predominant mode of travel to school while walking and bicycling rates have decreased. Some suggest that this change in travel behavior contributes to negative health outcomes in children, including increased rates of 1) overweight/obesity through inactivity and 2) pedestrian and bicyclist fatality and injury. A series of recent policies and programs directly attribute the change in travel behavior to school to the urban form of communities. Limited research exists to support this hypothesis, however. The fundamental questions of whether and how urban form impacts a child’s trip to school must to be answered in order to develop effective interventions aimed at increasing rates of walking and bicycling activity and safety.
This research proposes a conceptual framework to examine the nature and shape of the relationships between urban form; interpersonal, demographic and social/cultural factors;…
A growing number of researchers agree that social networks and community involvement have positive health consequences. Persons who are socially engaged with others and actively involved in their communities tend to live longer and be healthier physically and mentally.
Urban planners and public health advocates alike decry sprawl for prodding Americans to drive their cars from anywhere to everywhere. Car-dependent cities and suburbs, critics charge, spawn a sedentary lifestyle and associated health problems like obesity, adding as much as $76 billion annually to U.S. medical expenses by one estimate. Eight-lane thoroughfares, serpentine roads, incomplete sidewalk networks, far-flung retail plazas, campus-style business parks, and other distinguishing traits of contemporary America are said to conspire against walking and bicycling. However, are their influences serious enough to warrant radical changes in how we design communities of the future?
Numerous studies have examined the effects of built environments on motorized travel, however far less attention has been given to impacts on walking and bicycling. Probing effects on non-motorized transport (NMT) requires a different analytical approach. For one, walk and bicycle trips are…
A church-based community development corporation on Chicago’s west side is using a recently modernized rail transit line as the backbone of an ambitious retail and single family home development plan that it hopes will transform some of this city's toughest streets.
City and county leaders in California are most motivated to push for pedestrian-oriented infrastructure and land uses when there is a clear economic benefit to their communities.2 There are solid connections between walkable environments and economic viability. This brochure highlights some aspects of that nexus.
Personal travel behavior choices made by employees appear to be influenced by a number of urban design and urban form characteristics of their work place. Several important attributes include the density of development and the accessibility of non-work activities, such as eating at restaurants and shopping (frequently accompanied by a greater mix of land uses). The research reported in this study focuses on travel choices made by employees during their commute to work and during their work day. Travel patterns were examined for employees in four different urban and suburban employment centers. The mix of uses varied from a virtual single use center to a full urban core with numerous types of activities. Walk accessibility to the various activity centers (or buildings) varied from site to site. The various sites also contain different levels of transit service.
The International Centre for Sustainable Cities (ICSC) is part of Canada's response to Agenda-21 of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. The Centre receives support from the Government of Canada and in collaboration with other organizations carries out demonstration projects promoting sustainable urbanization.
One of the first of these projects is the Georgia Basin Sustainable Urbanization Project. An initial report was released in March of 1994 (The Cascadia Institute and The Discovery Institute, 1994). It provided bi-national policy context, a snapshot of current initiatives, and a basis for further work. It identified sustainability, transportation, trade and economic development as issues for the region.
This paper is based on the second report of the Georgia Basin project (Pivo, 1995a). It examines urbanization trends along "Mainstreet Cascadia", identifies growth patterns that promote sustainable development and points to "low impact…
Rotterdam's main shopping centre was severed by a busy traffic route. A multifunctional complex was built at the intersection of Beursplein and Coolsingel, supplying additional retail space, recreation, homes and car parking. Rotterdam's main shopping centre, consisting of the old zone, Beursplein and Hoogstraat, and the postwar Lijnbaan (by Van den Broek & Bakema), was severed by a busy traffic route, Coolsingel. The area needed upgrading with more shops, greater visual unity and improved connection between the two sides of Coolsingel. To this end, de Architekten Cie. built a multifunctional complex at the intersection of Beursplein and Coolsingel, supplying additional retail space, recreation, homes and car parking. The complex consists of two parts: Beurstraverse, a sunken and partly underground shopping street passing beneath Coolsingel, and a block with a shopping arcade and a residential tower on the corner of Beursplein and Coolsingel.